Health-Diet.us




Alkaline Diet

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     Green: alkaline or low-acid food;  Red: acidic food.


Food NamePro.Pho.Pot.Mag.Cal.PRAL 
Milk, human1.031451332-0.5
Milk3.2994148111170.2
Milk, cow's, fluid, whole3.2291143101130.2
Milk, cow's, fluid, whole, low-sodium3.10862535101-2.1
Milk, calcium fortified, cow's, fluid, whole3.219114310412-3.7
Milk, calcium fortified, cow's, fluid, 1% fat3.379515011219-1.1
Milk, calcium fortified, cow's, fluid, skim or nonfat3.4010116611204-1.0
Milk, cow's, fluid, other than whole ("lowfat")3.3396152111190.2
Milk, cow's, fluid, 2% fat3.3094150111170.1
Milk, cow's, fluid, acidophilus, 1% fat3.3795150111190.2
Milk, cow's, fluid, acidophilus, 2% fat3.3094150111170.1
Milk, cow's, fluid, 1% fat3.3795150111190.2
Milk, cow's, fluid, skim or nonfat, 0.5% or less butterfat3.37101156111250.2
Milk, cow's, fluid, filled with vegetable oil3.3397139131280.3
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Usage Note

  • Foods are color coded: Green for alkaline or low-acid foods and Red for acidic foods.
  • The larger the PRAL magnitude, the more alkaline or acidic the food is.
  • This database contains the PRAL values and acidity ratings for 6,941 foods.
  • Abbreviations: Pro = Protein, Pho = Phosphorus, Pot = Potassium, Mag = Magnesium, Cal = Calcium.
  • Phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and calcium values are in mg and calculated per 100g of food weight.
  • Protein value is in grams and calculated per 100g of food weight.
  • Pie chart shows relative contributions to total calories from carbohydrate, protein and fat (and alcohol, if exists).
  • The mineral and vitamin charts show the relative contents of minerals and vitamins of each food. The higher the bubble, the higher mineral or vitamin content a food has relative to other foods. The larger the bubble, the greater the mineral or vitamin content relative to the Recommended Daily Allowances.

Alkaline Diet

information from the National Institutes of Health

When it comes to the pH and net acid load in the human diet, there has been considerable change from the hunter gather civilization to the present. With industrialization, there has been an decrease in potassium (K) compared to sodium (Na) and an increase in chloride compared to bicarbonate found in the diet. The ratio of potassium to sodium has reversed, K/Na previously was 10 to 1 whereas the modern diet has a ratio of 1 to 3. It is generally accepted that agricultural humans today have a diet poor in magnesium and potassium as well as fiber and rich in saturated fat, simple sugars, sodium, and chloride as compared to the preagricultural period. This results in a diet that may induce metabolic acidosis which is mismatched to the genetically determined nutritional requirements. With aging, there is a gradual loss of renal acid-base regulatory function and a resultant increase in diet-induced metabolic acidosis while on the modern diet. A low-carb high-protein diet with its increased acid load results in many changes in urinary chemistry. Urinary magnesium levels, urinary citrate and pH are decreased, urinary calcium, undissociated uric acid, and phosphate are increased. All of these result in an increased risk for kidney stones.

As we age, there is a loss of muscle mass, which may predispose to falls and fractures. A three-year study looking at a diet rich in potassium, such as fruits and vegetables, as well as a reduced acid load, resulted in preservation of muscle mass in older men and women. There is also some evidence that chronic low back pain improves with the supplementation of alkaline minerals.

What is PRAL: Potential Renal Acid Load?

PRAL value is calculated from a formula developed by Thomas Remer and other researchers at the Department of Nutrition and Health, the Research Institute of Child Nutrition, Dortmund, Germany, to assess the acidity of foods and diets.


PRAL formula:

PRAL = 0.49 x protein + 0.037 x phosphorus - 0.021 x potassium - 0.026 x magnesium - 0.013 x calcium


Detailed information about PRAL at The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition: PRAL Research


Today, there is a general consensus that diet can markedly affect acid-base status and that a person’s acid load can be specifically manipulated by dietary means. An established method of estimating acid loads of foods or diets is by calculating the potential renal acid load (PRAL). PRAL provides an estimate of the production of endogenous acid that exceeds the level of alkali produced for given amounts of foods ingested daily. The concept of PRAL calculation is physiologically based and takes into account different intestinal absorption rates of individual minerals and of sulfurcontaining protein, as well as the amount of sulfate produced from metabolized proteins. This method of calculation was experimentally validated in healthy adults, and it showed that, under controlled conditions, acid loads and renal net acid excretion (NAE) can be reliably estimated from diet composition.

Alkaline Diet Research

at the Jean Mayer US Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA

Muscle mass gradually declines after age 50, and muscle loss leads to muscle weakness; greater risks of falls, fractures, and disability; and loss of independence.There is plausible evidence that the composition of diets with respect to acid-base balance is a contributing factor.
Protein and cereal grains are metabolized to acidic residues, and fruit and vegetables are metabolized to alkaline residues. In general, American diets are acidic, generating 75–100 mEq acid/d. With the decline in renal function that occurs with aging, older persons are not able to excrete the excess hydrogen ions, and they develop mild but slowly increasing metabolic acidosis. Metabolic acidosis has been linked to muscle wasting in chronic renal failure and in obese subjects who were acidotic while following weight-loss diets; correction of the acidosis has been shown to reverse the muscle wasting in these 2 conditions.

Additional PRAL Calculator

The PRAL database at this site is for the What We Eat in America survey database. We have another PRAL calculator for the National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference at: Potential Renal Acid Load Calculator. If you can't find a certain foods in our database, please try the PRAL calculator at our partner website.


Alkaline Vegetables

List of high-alkaline vegetables based on PRAL values.



Low-Acid Vegetables PRAL value

Parsley, freeze-dried -109

Radishes, oriental, dried -75

Chives, freeze-dried -60

Tomatoes, sun-dried -58

Peppers, sweet, green, freeze-dried -52

Peppers, sweet, red, freeze-dried -52

Seaweed, agar, dried -47

Carrot, dehydrated -42

Peppers, ancho, dried -41

Leeks, (bulb and lower-leaf portion), freeze-dried -39

Peppers, pasilla, dried -35

Peppers, hot chile, sun-dried -31

Tomato powder -30

Kanpyo, (dried gourd strips) -29

Tomatoes, sun-dried, packed in oil, drained -28

Potatoes, mashed, dehydrated, granules with milk, dry form -28

Onions, dehydrated flakes -24

Shallots, freeze-dried -23

Mushrooms, shiitake, dried -20

Beet greens, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt -20

Beet greens, cooked, boiled, drained, with salt -20

Tomato products, canned, paste, with salt added -18

Tomato products, canned, paste, without salt added -18

Epazote, raw -17

Beet greens, raw -17

Butterbur, (fuki), raw -15

Potatoes, mashed, dehydrated, flakes without milk, dry form -15

Yam, raw -15

Potato flour -14


Low-Acid Vegetables PRAL value

Amaranth leaves, cooked, boiled, drained, with salt -14

Amaranth leaves, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt -14

Fireweed, leaves, raw -14

Amaranth leaves, raw -14

Lemon grass (citronella), raw -13

Taro, tahitian, raw -13

Pepeao, dried -13

Taro leaves, raw -12

Chard, swiss, cooked, boiled, drained, with salt -12

Spinach, raw -12

Chard, swiss, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt -12

Taro, tahitian, cooked, without salt -12

Taro, tahitian, cooked, with salt -12

Yam, cooked, boiled, drained, or baked, with salt -12

Arrowhead, raw -12

Yam, cooked, boiled, drained, or baked, without salt -12

Jute, potherb, cooked, boiled, drained, with salt -11

Purslane, cooked, boiled, drained, with salt -11

Vinespinach, (basella), raw -11

Purslane, raw -11

Chrysanthemum, garland, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt -11

Chrysanthemum, garland, raw -11

Purslane, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt -11

Balsam-pear (bitter gourd), leafy tips, cooked, boiled, drained, with salt -11

Cress, garden, raw -11

Kale, scotch, raw -11

Balsam-pear (bitter gourd), leafy tips, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt -11

Parsley, fresh -11

Chrysanthemum leaves, raw -11

Chrysanthemum, garland, cooked, boiled, drained, with salt -11

Yautia (tannier), raw -11



Low-Acid Vegetables PRAL value

Jute, potherb, raw -11

Jute, potherb, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt -11

Potatoes, scalloped, dry mix, unprepared -10

Mustard spinach, (tendergreen), raw -10

Wasabi, root, raw -10

Spinach, cooked, boiled, drained, with salt -10

Arrowhead, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt -10

Lambsquarters, raw -10

Balsam-pear (bitter gourd), leafy tips, raw -10

Potatoes, microwaved, cooked in skin, skin, without salt -10

Waterchestnuts, chinese, (matai), raw -10

Arrowhead, cooked, boiled, drained, with salt -10

Bamboo shoots, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt -10

Bamboo shoots, cooked, boiled, drained, with salt -10

Borage, cooked, boiled, drained, with salt -10

Borage, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt -10

Spinach, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt -10

Potatoes, microwaved, cooked, in skin, skin with salt -10

Taro, raw -10

Coriander (cilantro) leaves, raw -10

Borage, raw -10

Sweet potato leaves, cooked, steamed, with salt -9

Taro leaves, cooked, steamed, without salt -9

Sweet potato leaves, cooked, steamed, without salt -9

Squash, winter, acorn, cooked, baked, without salt -9

Taro, leaves, cooked, steamed, with salt -9

Squash, winter, acorn, cooked, baked, with salt -9

Potatoes, Russet, flesh and skin, baked -9

Potatoes, hashed brown, home-prepared -9

Cardoon, cooked, boiled, drained, with salt -9

Gourd, dishcloth (towelgourd), cooked, boiled, drained, with salt -9


Low-Acid Vegetables PRAL value

Cowpeas (blackeyes), immature seeds, raw -9

Fungi, Cloud ears, dried -9

Cowpeas, leafy tips, raw -9

Beans, pinto, immature seeds, frozen, unprepared -9

Cardoon, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt -9

Cardoon, raw -9

Gourd, dishcloth (towelgourd), cooked, boiled, drained, without salt -9

Potatoes, baked, skin, with salt -8

Drumstick leaves, cooked, boiled, drained, with salt -8

Spinach, canned, regular pack, drained solids -8

Dandelion greens, raw -8

Butterbur, cooked, boiled, drained, with salt -8

Tomato products, canned, puree, without salt added -8

Chard, swiss, raw -8

Cornsalad, raw -8

Potatoes, white, flesh and skin, baked -8

Butterbur, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt -8

Taro, cooked, without salt -8

Arugula, raw -8

Sweet potato leaves, raw -8

Potatoes, baked, skin, without salt -8

Cowpeas (blackeyes), immature seeds, cooked, boiled, drained, with salt -8

Drumstick pods, cooked, boiled, drained, with salt -8

Sweet potato, cooked, baked in skin, without salt -8

Cowpeas (blackeyes), immature seeds, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt -8

Potatoes, red, flesh and skin, baked -8

Drumstick leaves, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt -8

Potato, baked, flesh and skin, without salt -8

Bamboo shoots, raw -8

Mountain yam, hawaii, cooked, steamed, with salt -8

Lotus root, raw -8


Low-Acid Vegetables PRAL value

Mountain yam, hawaii, raw -8

Mountain yam, hawaii, cooked, steamed, without salt -8

Kale, raw -8

Tomato products, canned, puree, with salt added -8

Chicory greens, raw -8

Nopales, raw -8

Mushrooms, Chanterelle, raw -8

Dock, raw -8

Drumstick pods, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt -8

Ginger root, raw -8

Taro, cooked, with salt -8

Drumstick pods, raw -8

Potatoes, baked, flesh and skin, with salt -8

Sweet potato, cooked, baked in skin, with salt -8

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